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On January 31, 1919—a hundred years ago today—Jackie Robinson turned into born in Cairo, Georgia. Twenty-eight years later, he broke the baseball color line and have become the first African American to play on an incredible sports crew. listed below are forty two facts to have a good time the legendary athlete.

1. Jack "Jackie" Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia. presently after his start, his family unit moved and settled in Pasadena, California.

2. President Theodore Roosevelt, who died 25 days before Robinson turned into born, became the inspiration for his center name.

3. He changed into the youngest of 5 children—Edgar, Frank, Matthew "Mack," and Willa Mae—and grew up in relative poverty in a neatly-off group in Pasadena.

four. Robinson attended John Muir excessive faculty, where he become placed on the Pomona Annual Baseball event All-superstar team with fellow future Baseball corridor of Famers Ted Williams of the Boston purple Sox and Bob Lemon of the Cleveland Indians.

5. He was also an accomplished tennis player, winning the junior boys singles championship within the Pacific Coast Negro Tennis tournament.

6. Jackie's brother Mack changed into an adept athlete and a appropriate sprinter. He won a Silver Medal in the 200 meters in the back of Jesse Owens right through the 1936 summer season Olympics in Berlin, Germany.

The Robinson family

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7. In 1942, Jackie Robinson become drafted into the military. He became assigned to a segregated military Cavalry unit in fort Riley, Kansas.

8. whereas within the military, Robinson became friends with boxing champion Joe Louis when the heavyweight, who become stationed at castle Riley at the time, used his superstar to protest the delayed entry of black troopers in an workplace Candidate faculty (OCS). consequently, Robinson changed into commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in 1943.

9. After an incident where he refused to sit within the lower back of an unsegregated bus, military police arrested Robinson on the request of an obligation officer, who later requested Robinson be court docket-martialed. on the time of the lawsuits, Robinson become prohibited from being deployed distant places to the world battle II battlefronts. He by no means saw combat right through the battle.

10. Robinson turned into acquitted and then assigned to Camp Breckinridge in Kentucky, where he labored as a military athletics train until he become given an honorable discharge in 1944. all over his time on the camp, Robinson changed into encouraged to tryout for the Kansas city Monarchs in the Negro national League.

eleven. In 1945, Robinson signed a contract to play for the Kansas metropolis Monarchs. He was paid $four hundred a month (about $5100 nowadays) to play shortstop and finally became positioned within the Negro League All-celebrity online game that yr.

12. Robinson married Rachel Islum—who he had met in 1941 all through his senior year at UCLA—in 1946. that they had their first son, Jackie Robinson Jr., that November. The Robinsons had two more infants: a daughter, Sharon, and a further son, David.

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13. Robinson played Minor League Baseball for the Montreal Royals in 1946, unless he turned into known as up to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers within the principal Leagues in 1947.

14. He made his fundamental League Baseball debut on April 15, 1947, at Ebbets field in Brooklyn, ny. He became the primary African-American baseball participant in main League heritage.

15. He additionally gained Rookie of the yr in 1947 with a batting usual of .297, 175 hits, 12 domestic runs, and 48 runs batted in.

16. Jackie Robinson had a close friendship with Larry Doby of the Cleveland Indians, who became the first African-American baseball participant in the American League. the two men broke the colour barrier in baseball within the identical year and would confer with every different on the mobilephone to share their experiences with racism all through the season.

17. Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese defended Robinson against violent and nasty racial slurs during his rookie season. Reese famously put his arm round him and observed, "that you may hate a man for a lot of reasons. color isn't considered one of them," as a response to fanatics shouting racial slurs at Robinson.

18. On August 29, 1948, in a 12-7 win towards the St. Louis Cardinals, Robinson "hit for the cycle" with a house run, a triple, a double, and then a single in the identical game.

19. Robinson was the country wide League Batting and Stolen Bases Champion with a batting usual of .342 and 37 stolen bases in 1949.

20. He become also a six time All-megastar between the years 1949 to 1954.

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21. In 1949, Robinson changed into known as to testify before the united states house of Representatives' Committee on Un-American activities (HUAC). He became subpoenaed as a result of feedback made about him via fashionable African-American actor Paul Robson. in the beginning, Robinson changed into hesitant to testify, however then changed into finally compelled to do so as a result of he feared no longer doing so would harm his baseball career.

22. The countrywide League's Most useful player Award went to Robinson in 1949, after his first look within the MLB All-celebrity game. Robinson later took his crew to the realm series, however would lose against the big apple Yankees.

23. Jackie Robinson performed himself within the Jackie Robinson Story, a biopic about his existence launched in 1950. Academy Award-nominated female actor Ruby Dee played Robinson's spouse Rachel "Rae" Isum Robinson.

24. during the off-season, Robinson went on a vaudeville and speaking tour of the South, the place he would answer pre-set questions on his life. He in fact made greater funds on these excursions than he did on his contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers.

25. Robinson played in six World collection, but best gained one in 1955 against the big apple Yankees in a seven video game sequence. Robinson didn't play in 49 games that season and neglected game 7; Don Hoak performed third base in Robinson's vicinity.

26. At 37, Robinson retired from main League Baseball and the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1956 as a result of the seen effects of diabetes. Unbeknownst to the Brooklyn Dodgers, Robinson took a position with the American espresso company Chock Full O' Nuts and agreed to quit baseball.

27. From 1957 to 1964, Jackie Robinson served because the vice president of personnel for Chock Full O' Nuts coffee. He changed into the primary African-American vp of a tremendous American agency.

28. Robinson become a political unbiased, but had very conservative views on the Vietnam war. He also supported Richard Nixon in the 1960 Presidential election in opposition t John F. Kennedy, despite the fact Robinson admired Kennedy's stance on civil rights once he changed into elected. He changed into later dismayed with Republicans for no longer aiding the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and shortly after grew to become a Democrat.

29. In 1962, Jackie Robinson become inducted in the Baseball hall of repute all the way through his first 12 months of eligibility. He changed into the first African American inducted at the Cooperstown corridor of repute and Museum.

30. Jackie Robinson became at all times considered as a huge determine within the Civil Rights stream within the Sixties. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. as soon as talked about Robinson turned into "a legend and image in his own time" who "challenged the darkish skies of intolerance and frustration."

31. In 1964, Robinson co-centered the freedom country wide financial institution—a black owned and operated bank in Harlem, big apple—with businessman Dunbar McLaurin. Robinson became the business bank's first Chairman of the Board. His spouse later served as Chairman unless 1990 when the financial institution closed.

32. Robinson changed into additionally the first African-American television sports analyst. He broadcasted for ABC's major League Baseball video game of the Week telecasts in 1965. Robinson later labored as a component-time commentator for the Montreal Expos in 1972.

33. On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired Jackie Robinson's uniform number 42, in addition to Sandy Koufax's quantity 32 and Roy Campanella's quantity 39.

34. Robinson died of a heart assault on October 24, 1972 in Stamford, Connecticut, at age fifty three.

35. In 1973, Robinson's widow, Rachel, begun the Jackie Robinson foundation, a non-earnings corporation that gives college scholarships to minorities. The basis additionally preserves the legacy of Jackie Robinson as a baseball participant and a civil rights pioneer.

36. The residence in Brooklyn, manhattan, the place Jackie Robinson lived while he played for the Brooklyn Dodgers changed into declared a countrywide historic Landmark in 1976.

37. On March 1, 1981, American astronomer Schelte John "Bobby" Bus found an asteroid on the Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. Bus named the asteroid "4319 Jackierobinson," after his favorite baseball player.

38. President Ronald Reagan posthumously awarded Jackie Robinson with the Presidential Medal of Freedom—the highest award given to a civilian for his or her contributions to world peace, cultural, or different massive public or inner most endeavors—on March 26, 1984.

39. You may not see any baseball players donning the number 42: In 1997, Robinson's number become retired right through principal League Baseball. This changed into the first and only time a jersey number had been retired all through an entire skilled sports league.

forty. In 1999, Robinson turned into added to the important League Baseball All-Century group together with Cal Ripken Jr., Joe DiMaggio, Willie Mays, and Ty Cobb. fans chose the closing selections from a listing compiled of the one hundred greatest principal League Baseball avid gamers from the past century.

forty one. April 15, 2004, grew to become Jackie Robinson Day and all uniformed gamers in essential League Baseball were required to wear number 42 on their jerseys to honor Robinson's memory and legacy to the sport.

forty two. more than two decades after he acquired the Presidential Medal of Freedom, President George W. Bush additionally posthumously awarded Jackie Robinson with the Congressional Gold Medal—the maximum honor the legislative branch can bestow on a civilian and ought to be co-backed by means of two-thirds of participants within the condo and the Senate—for his contributions to American heritage. He grew to be the 2nd baseball participant to acquire this accolade after Pittsburgh Pirates correct-Fielder Roberto Clemente in 1973.

An prior version of this text seemed in 2013.